A long catalogue had to be made of the districts from which the Tribes did not drive out the Canaanites. Israel being thus unfaithful, making a League with the inhabitants, and regardless of their evil, the Lord let them remain to prove Israel: in like manner the world-bordering of the Church has become a snare to it constantly. The Angel of the Lord was at Gilgal during the book of Joshua (to which place the Israelites should in Spirit have constantly returned: it is the place of Circumcision, that is, for the Christian, thorough separation from the first man); but now He came to Bochim, and reminded them that He had delivered them from Egypt, and had declared that He would never break His Covenant with Israel; they were to make no League with the people of the land, but they had not obeyed His voice. The failure was now irretrievable. The people wept and sacrificed there. Nevertheless they formed alliances with the Canaanites, and sacrificed to Baalim. Then they were oppressed by their enemies; but as often as they turned to the Lord, He raised up a judge who delivered them from the hand of their oppressors. Yet when the judge died, they returned again to their evil ways. This experience of evil doing -- oppression, Repentance, and Deliverance -- occurred again and again during a period of over three hundred years. (The action of the judges is considered under the name of each.)
Judges 17 -- Judges 21 are not in historical order, but are grouped together to show the inner life of the people. Judges 17 and Judges 18 disclose a sad attempt to mingle the Worship of God with domestic Idolatry. See Micah #1.
Judges 19 -- Judges 21 show the moral character of the people, especially of Benjamin, who brought upon themselves severe Punishment. When the other Tribes saw the Destruction they had made upon Benjamin they came to the house of God and wept, lamenting that one tribe was lacking in Israel; but no mention is made of their weeping over the sin that had brought it all about.
The book ends by repeating what it had said elsewhere: "In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes." God would have been their king if they would have been His subjects.
The Chronology of the book of Judges presents some difficulties. It is clear from Various passages that the periods during which the judges ruled could not all have been consecutive. The 480 years from the Exodus to the fourth year of Solomon, 1 Kings 6: 1, necessarily shortens the period of the judges, and one Passage in the book itself implies that two of the oppressions were going on at the same time, namely, that of the Philistines and of Ammon. Judges 10: 7. In Acts 13: 20 the A.V. reads that God gave them judges about the space of 450 years until Samuel the Prophet. This would not agree with the 480 years of 1 Kings 6: 1; but there is a different reading in Acts 13, which has been adopted by editors of the Greek Testament and in the R.V. irrespective of all questions of Chronology. It reads "He divided to them their land by lot, about 450 years; and afterwards he gave them judges;" thus the 450 years are not applied to the duration of the judges. This period may have been made up thus, reckoning from the birth of Isaac, because the promise was to the seed of Abraham, and Isaac was the child of promise.
Age of Isaac, when Jacob was born, Gen. 25: 26
" " " "
YEARS 60 130 215 40 7 452
The 480 years 1 Kings 6: 1 have been arranged thus, though this may not be absolutely correct.
From the Exodus to the crossing the Jordan From the Jordan to the division of the land Rest under Joshua and the Elders Oppression by the king of Mesopotamia Othniel judge Oppression by the Moabites Ehud and Shamgar Oppression by king Jabin Deborah and Barak Oppression by the Midianites Gideon Abimelech Tola Jair
Judges 2: 7 Judges 3: 8 Judges 3: 11 Judges 3: 14 Judges 3: 30 Judges 4: 3 Judges 5: 31 Judges 6: 1 Judges 8: 28 Judges 9: 22 Judges 10: 2 Judges 10: 3
YEARS 40 7 12 8 40 18 80 20 40 7 40 3 23 22
| | | |
In the East. Oppression by the
Ammonites Jephthah Ibzan
40 | Elon | Abdon 9 |
Judges 10: 8 Judges 12: 7 Judges 12: 9 Judges 12: 11 Judges 12: 14 18 6 7 10 8
Saul (in the former part of which Samuel was judge)
David Solomon's fourth year
Acts 13: 21
1 Kings 2: 11 1 Kings 6: 1
Deduct for parts of years being reckoned as full years
40 40 3 492 -12 480